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Welcome to the Insertion Sort in Python page! Here, you’ll find the source code for this program as well as a description of how the program works.

```
import sys
from itertools import takewhile
def insertion_sort(xs):
new_xs = []
for x in xs:
new_xs = insert(x, new_xs)
return new_xs
def insert(x, xs):
left = list(takewhile(lambda i: i < x, xs))
right = xs[len(left):]
return left + [x] + right
def input_list(list_str):
return [int(x.strip(" "), 10) for x in list_str.split(',')]
def exit_with_error():
print('Usage: please provide a list of at least two integers to sort in the format "1, 2, 3, 4, 5"')
sys.exit(1)
def main(args):
try:
xs = input_list(args[0])
if len(xs) <= 1:
exit_with_error()
print(insertion_sort(xs))
except (IndexError, ValueError):
exit_with_error()
if __name__ == "__main__":
main(sys.argv[1:])
```

Insertion Sort in Python was written by:

- Haseeb Majid
- Jeremy Grifski
- Parker Johansen

If you see anything you’d like to change or update, please consider contributing.

**Note**: The solution shown above is the current solution in the Sample Programs repository as of Oct 15 2020 22:17:17. The solution was first committed on Dec 22 2018 23:07:21. As a result, documentation below may be outdated.

At this point, let’s dig into the code a bit. The following sections break down the Insertion Sort in Python functionality.

```
#!/usr/bin/env python
import sys
from itertools import takewhile
def insertion_sort(xs):
new_xs = []
for x in xs:
new_xs = insert(x, new_xs)
return new_xs
def insert(x, xs):
left = list(takewhile(lambda i: i < x, xs))
right = xs[len(left):] if xs else xs
return left + [x] + right
def input_list(list_str):
return [int(x.strip(" "), 10) for x in list_str.split(',')]
def exit_with_error():
print('Usage: please provide a list of at least two integers to sort in the format "1, 2, 3, 4, 5"')
sys.exit(1)
def main(args):
try:
xs = input_list(args[0])
if len(xs) <= 1:
exit_with_error()
print(insertion_sort(xs))
except (IndexError,ValueError):
raise
exit_with_error()
if __name__ == "__main__":
main(sys.argv[1:])
```

Breaking down this solution bottom up,

```
if __name__ == "__main__":
main(sys.argv[1:])
```

This bit of code checks to see if this is the main module run. If it is, it then calls the main
function and passes user input to it. In this case the user input would be a string of numbers
like so `"2, 1, 10, 5, 3"`

(to sort).

```
def main(args):
try:
xs = input_list(args[0])
if len(xs) <= 1:
exit_with_error()
print(insertion_sort(xs))
except (IndexError,ValueError):
exit_with_error()
```

This is the main function of this file. It parses the input, then calls our insertion sort function (and prints the results). It also deals with any errors raised.

```
def input_list(list_str):
return [int(x.strip(" "), 10) for x in list_str.split(',')]
```

This function takes a string like `"2, 1, 10, 5, 3"`

, and turns into a list of numbers.
It does this using a list comprehension. First, we need to convert our string into a
list `list_str.split(',')`

which is a list of strings split by comma (,).
So our original input string becomes `["2", " 1", " 10", " 5", " 3"]`

. Then for each
element in the list `for x in ...`

, we do something to it.

In this example we convert it into a decimal integer, `int(x.strip(" "), 10)`

. Then, `x.strip(" ")`

removes any whitespace so `" 1"`

becomes `"1"`

. After that, `int("1", 10)`

converts the string `"1"`

into a decimal number in this case `1`

. This is done
for every item in the list so our original input of `"2, 1, 10, 5, 3"`

becomes `[2, 1, 10, 5, 3]`

.

```
def exit_with_error():
print('Usage: please provide a list of at least two integers to sort in the format "1, 2, 3, 4, 5"')
sys.exit(1)
```

This function prints a message and then exits the script with an error, `sys.exit(1)`

.
If any non-zero value is returned then the program didn’t complete properly. This function is called
if the user input isn’t correct.

```
def insertion_sort(xs):
new_xs = []
for x in xs:
new_xs = insert(x, new_xs)
return new_xs
```

Let’s take a look at the part of the program that sorts our list. The unsorted list is passed to the
`insertion_sort`

method as the parameter `xs`

. Meanwhile, `new_xs = []`

is our new sorted listed which is
empty to begin with.

We loop through every element in the unsorted list `for x in xs`

. Then we call the `insert()`

function to add `x`

to the `new_xs`

(the sorted list) in the correct position.
Each time the `insert()`

function is called it returns a sorted list which we assign
to `new_xs`

. Finally, when we’ve looped through every item in `xs`

, we return the sorted list
`new_xs`

which will then get printed on the terminal to the user.

Taking a look at an example where `xs = [5, 3, 10]`

1st

`x = 5`

`insert(5, [])`

`new_xs = [5]`

2nd

`x = 3`

`insert(3, [5])`

`new_xs = [3, 5]`

3rd

`x = 10`

`insert(10, [3, 5])`

`new_xs = [3, 5, 10]`

```
def insert(x, xs):
left = list(takewhile(lambda i: i < x, xs))
right = xs[len(left):]
return left + [x] + right
```

This function takes two parameters `x`

, which is an element from our unsorted list, and
`xs`

, which is the list to add `x`

to such that `xs`

remains sorted.
A High-level overview of this function is that the `left`

variable will be a list that stores
all elements less than `x`

from `xs`

and `right`

will store all elements greater than (or equal)
to `x`

. That way we can “insert” `x`

between these two lists. Hence the return statement
looking like `return left + [x] + right`

and this returned list will therefore be sorted.

Let’s take a look at the first line `left = list(takewhile(lambda i: i < x, xs))`

it looks a bit
complicated so let’s break it down. The first part `lambda i: i < x, xs`

is a lambda function
which is a small anonymous unnamed function.
In this case `i`

is an element of `xs`

and we want all `i`

’s less than `x`

.

Then, we call `takewhile(lambda i: i < x, xs)`

which takes a predicate (our lambda function) and a list.
It stops iterating over our list as soon as the lambda function evaluates to False. It then returns
all the elements up to that index.

Lets take a look at an example where `xs = [4, 7, 10]`

and `x = 8`

.
The first two items of `xs`

would evaluate as True since 4 and 7 are
less than 8, so takewhile would store 4 and 7 but not 10.
The `takewhile()`

function returns a `takewhile`

object but we want a list so we convert that into a
list hence `list(takewhile(lambda i: i < x, xs))`

. So the `left`

variable will store all numbers
less than `x`

, since `xs`

is already sorted.

Moving onto `right = xs[len(left):]`

, `len(left)`

returns the length of the left list.
Then we do some index splicing; you can learn more about that
here.
Index splicing is used to get part of a list in Python. In this case we are getting every element in
the list that’s not already in `left`

. We can do this because we know `xs`

is already sorted.

If `xs = [1, 4, 6, 8]`

and `x = 7`

then `left = [1, 4, 6]`

(all elements < 7). Then `len(left) = 3`

and `right = xs[3:]`

. Where `[3:]`

gets all elements from `xs`

not including the first `3`

elements,
so therefore `right = [8]`

. Finally, we `return left + [x] + right`

as we can simply “slot” `x`

into the
correct position. We convert `x`

to a list `[x]`

first so we can do list concatenation using the
plus operator `+`

.

Lets take a look at an example, `xs = [3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 15, 18]`

and `x`

is `5`

. The variable `left`

will add consecutive elements from `xs`

until `lambda i: i < x`

(i < x) evaluates as False.
In this case `left = [3, 4]`

as 6 > 5. Then we get the length of `left`

which is `len(left) = 2`

,
slice so we don’t include the first two elements `xs[2:] = [6, 8, 11, 15, 18]`

. Then we return
the following `left + [x] + right = [3, 4] + [5] + [6, 8, 11, 15, 18]`

or
`[3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 15, 18]`

.

If we want to run this program, we should probably download a copy of Insertion Sort in Python. After that, we should make sure we have the latest Python interpreter. From there, we can run the following command in the terminal:

`python insertion-sort.py "3, 2, 10, 6, 1, 7"`

Alternatively, we can copy the solution into an online Python interpreter and hit run.